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1. Antibiotic Resistance: A Growing Global Threat Antibiotic resistance is a growing global threat that is caused by the overuse and misuse of antibiotics. In recent years, the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections has been increasing, with some infections becoming untreatable. The World Health Organization (WHO) has warned that if action is not taken to tackle antibiotic resistance, it could lead to a “post-antibiotic era”, where common infections can no longer be treated. This article will explore the causes of antibiotic resistance, the dangers of this phenomenon and the steps that can be taken to curb it. 2. Antibiotics: A Primer for Parents Antibiotics are a powerful tool for treating bacterial infections, but they can also cause serious side effects. In this article, we will discuss the benefits and risks of antibiotic use, and how parents can ensure that their children receive the best care possible. We will also provide tips on how to prevent the spread of antibiotic resistance. 3. The Growing Threat of Superbugs: How We Can Fight Antibiotic Resistance Antibiotic resistance is a growing global threat and has been described as one of the greatest challenges facing modern

Ethics of antibiotic allergy | Journal of Medical Ethics

Antibiotic allergies are commonly reported among patients, but most do not experience reactions on rechallenge with the same agents. These reported allergies complicate management of infections in patients labelled as having penicillin allergy, including serious infections where penicillin-based antibiotics are the first-line (most effective and least toxic) treatment option. Allergy labels are rarely questioned in clinical practice, with many clinicians opting for inferior second-line antibiotics to avoid a perceived risk of allergy. Reported allergies thereby can have significant impacts on patients and public health, and present major ethical challenges. Antibiotic allergy testing has been described as a strategy to circumvent this dilemma, but it carries limitations that often make it less feasible in patients with acute infections or in community settings that lack access to allergy testing. This article provides an empirically informed ethical analysis of key considerations in this clinical dilemma, using Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in patients with penicillin allergies as a case study. We argue that prescribing first-line penicillin-based antibiotics to patients with reported allergies may often present a more favourable ratio of benefits to risks, and may therefore be more ethically appropriate than using second-line drugs. We recommend changes to policy-making, clinical research and medical education, in order to promote more ethically acceptable responses to antibiotic allergies than the status quo. All data relevant to the study are included in the article or uploaded as online supplemental information.

Antibiotics in the clinical pipeline as of December 2022 | The Journal of Antibiotics

The need for new antibacterial drugs to treat the increasing global prevalence of drug-resistant bacterial infections has clearly attracted global attention, with a range of existing and upcoming funding, policy, and legislative initiatives designed to revive antibacterial R&D. It is essential to assess whether these programs are having any real-world impact and this review continues our systematic analyses that began in 2011. Direct-acting antibacterials (47), non-traditional small molecule antibacterials (5), and β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (10) under clinical development as of December 2022 are described, as are the three antibacterial drugs launched since 2020. Encouragingly, the increased number of early-stage clinical candidates observed in the 2019 review increased in 2022, although the number of first-time drug approvals from 2020 to 2022 was disappointingly low. It will be critical to monitor how many Phase-I and -II candidates move into Phase-III and beyond in the next few years. There was also an enhanced presence of novel antibacterial pharmacophores in early-stage trials, and at least 18 of the 26 phase-I candidates were targeted to treat Gram-negative bacteria infections. Despite the promising early-stage antibacterial pipeline, it is essential to maintain funding for antibacterial R&D and to ensure that plans to address late-stage pipeline issues succeed.