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Assyria Assyria is an ancient civilization situated in the northern part of what is now Iraq. It was once one of the most powerful and influential empires in the ancient world, and its legacy is still evident today. The Assyrians were a Semitic people who spoke the Akkadian language and practiced ancient Mesopotamian religion. They are known for their powerful military, advanced architecture, and sophisticated art. Assyria was one of the earliest civilizations in the world, with its first settlements dating back to the 25th century BC. Its capital, Nineveh, was the largest city in the world at its peak. The city was sacked by the Babylonians in 612 BC and eventually fell to the Persian Empire in 605 BC. The Assyrians were renowned for their use of iron weaponry and their highly organized military which allowed them to create a vast empire stretching from Egypt to modern-day Iran. The Assyrian Empire was eventually conquered by the Medes and later by the Achaemenid Persians in 539 BC.