1. "Caesar: A Roman Empire-Inspired Strategy Game" This article from How-To Geek provides an overview of the classic game of Caesar, which was originally released in 1992. The article explains the basic mechanics of the game, the different factions available, and how to win. It also goes into detail about how the game can be modified for different levels of difficulty, as well as providing tips for new players. 2. "The History Behind Caesar and the Roman Empire" This article from Ancient History Encyclopedia provides a comprehensive overview of the life of Julius Caesar and the Roman Empire. It covers the political, social, and military aspects of the Roman Empire during his reign, as well as the impact of his military campaigns and reforms on the Roman Empire. 3. "Julius Caesar: The Man Behind the Legend" This video from the British Museum takes you through the life of Julius Caesar and the impact he had on the Roman Empire. It looks at his rise to power, the events of his life, and the legacy he left behind. 4. "Julius Caesar: A Revolutionary Leader From Ancient Rome" This article from The National Geographic looks at the life and legacy of Julius Caesar
The papal bull of February 1582 decreed that 10 days should be dropped from October 1582 so that 15 October should follow immediately after 4 October, and from then on the reformed calendar should be used. Most protestant countries adopted the calendar between 1699-1701. Great Britain, Ireland and the American colonies, did not switch over…
1582 – Pope Gregory reforms the calendar introduced by Julius Caesar in 45BCE: 4 October is followed by 15 October. However, the reform will not be implemented in Britain and Ireland till 1752. 1690 – After taking Cork on 28 September, Marlbourough takes Kinsale for the Williamites, who now control Munster. 1763 – Birth of…
ReviewClassical DinosaurFollowing the Roman road to disaster in Parthia.Douglas Boin| Published inHistory TodayVolume 72 Issue 12 December 2022Bust of Marcus Licinius Crassus, fifth century AD. Bridgeman Images.Shakespeare gave us an abiding image of Caesar. Pompey promoted himself as the second com
Book Blurb: SIGNUM: ONE MAN. ONE MISSION. THE FATE OF AN EMPIRE. First instalment of the compelling new fantasy adventure series (The Serpents of Caesar Book 1) In an alternate first century Rome, treachery casts a long shadow… When Praetorian Guard Verendus answers a plea to return home, he finds a new military unit – the Watch – terrorising the island of Iolia. The Watch signum is a strange symbol he encountered years ago and hundreds of miles away on a barbarian battleground. Suspecting treac
It’s September, and football is back. On Capitol Hill that means Representatives make friendly wagers over big games from teams in their districts, and recognizable all-stars occasionally find their way into campaign ads. Former football players—at both the professional and collegiate levels—have served in Congress for much of the last century. Mirroring the rise of the sport itself, the first football stars to join Congress were coaches and players from college teams. Gradually, American sports professionalized, and athletes like Jon Runyan of New Jersey and Heath Shuler of North Carolina brought their experience to the House too.In recent years, the Congressional Football Game has become another of the many rituals celebrated among Members of Congress. Following in the long tradition of the Congressional Baseball Game, the Congressional Football Game launched in 2005 as a fundraiser for a local cause. Envisioned by Representative Rick Renzi of Arizona seven years earlier to honor the service of the U.S. Capitol Police following the 1998 shooting of officers Jacob Chestnut and John Gibson, the game pits Members of Congress and former National Football League (NFL) players in a friendly match against Capitol Police officers. The event has attracted significant sponsors, like the National Football League, and all proceeds benefit charities, including the Capitol Police Memorial Fund. The game has been played in the fall of every odd year (in order to not conflict with congressional campaigns during the even years).This month’s Edition for Educators features football and the House.Featured PeopleWalter Gresham Andrews of New York A Republican from New York, Walter Gresham Andrews is one of the earliest known Members who made a brief career out of football. Andrews coached the Princeton University Tigers football team in 1913 and 1915. Andrews served in World War I before returning home to Buffalo, New York, where he managed sales, supervised the federal Census in the Buffalo region, and directed the local hospital. In 1930, he won election to the U.S. House of Representatives and eventually chaired the Committee on Armed Services in the 80th Congress (1947–1949) before retiring from Congress.Gerald Ford of Michigan Republican Leader Gerald Ford of Michigan is perhaps the most famous former football player to turn to politics. Ford played center on the University of Michigan football team during two undefeated seasons in 1932 and 1933 and won the Most Valuable Player award from his teammates in 1934. Despite lucrative offers to play for the Green Bay Packers and Detroit Lions, Ford decided to pursue a law degree at Yale University where he could simultaneously serve as an assistant coach for the university team. A World War II naval veteran, Ford entered Congress in 1949 and rose in the Republican conference, becoming conference chair in the 88th Congress (1963–1965). He then served as Republican Leader for the next five Congresses, a position which the New York Times described as “head coach of a disorganized squad of 140 politicians.” He resigned from the House on December 6, 1973, to serve as Vice President after the incumbent, Spiro Agnew, resigned. Following President Nixon’s resignation the following August, Gerald Ford became the 38th President of the United States. A perpetual athlete, Ford was an avid skier and golfer well into his retirement.Jack Kemp of New York “Some kids dream about being President,” Jack Kemp once said. “I dreamt night and day about football.” Kemp won election as a Republican to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1970 after a lifetime of quarterbacking. Unlike Gerald Ford, who had once turned down the chance to play for the Detroit Lions, Kemp joined the team as their 17th-round draft pick in 1957. After trades to the Pittsburgh Steelers, New York Giants, Canadian league team Calgary Roughriders, and the San Francisco 49ers, Kemp found his footing with the San Diego (formerly Los Angeles) Chargers in 1960 and finally the Buffalo Bills in 1962. While playing professional football, Kemp served as president of the American Football League players association, negotiating pension contracts for the league’s players. Eventually, he served nine terms in the House representing a district just outside Buffalo. Kemp focused on economic policy and championed the theory of “supply-side” economics during the Reagan era. His colleagues elected him Republican conference chair during each of his final four terms. Kemp ran unsuccessfully for the Republican nomination for President in 1988 but lost to George Bush, whose cabinet Kemp then served in as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. “In life you can’t always win,” he later said, “but football helps teach you never to quit.”Featured Objects from the House CollectionRuth Hanna McCormick In this photo from the 1929 Army football game against the University of Illinois, Representative Ruth Hanna McCormick of Illinois watches from the stands alongside Secretary of War and former Chairman of the House Appropriations Committee James W. Good.Julius Caesar (J.C.) Watts, Jr. Lapel Pin From 1999 to 2003, J.C. Watts of Oklahoma served as the chair of the House Republican Conference. But before quarterbacking the GOP’s policy goals on Capitol Hill, Watts was a college football hero at the University of Oklahoma where he quarterbacked the Sooners to two Orange Bowl victories. After a brief career in the Canadian Football League, he returned home to become a youth minister. A staunch fiscal conservative, Watts first ran for Congress in 1994, advertising his campaign with this lapel pin.Featured Oral HistoryCongressional Football The Honorable Donna F. Edwards of Maryland talks about her experience as the only woman Representative to play on the Congressional Football Team in 2013.Featured HighlightsPresident Ronald Reagan’s Denied Request to Address the House On June 23, 1986, Speaker Thomas P. “Tip” O’Neill of Massachusetts declined a request from President Ronald Reagan to address the House of Representatives about a foreign aid package that was about to come up for a vote. In declining the President’s request to address the House, O’Neill pointed out that he had twice rejected similar requests by Democratic President Jimmy Carter. In 1978, for instance, Carter asked to schedule a Joint Address on the Middle East peace process for 9:00 p.m. O’Neill responded, “Mr. President, 9 o’clock? That’s when the football game is on. . . . How about 8 o’clock?” Carter agreed and his address on September 18, 1978, preceded the game between the New England Patriots and the Baltimore Colts. The Colts won 34 to 27.Featured BlogsNo Going Home for the Holidays On Thanksgiving Day in 1937, the scene in the House was chaos. After a standard unanimous consent request to adjourn for the holiday failed amid much furor, many Members salvaged their holiday and attended the popular Army–Navy football game in Philadelphia.This is part of a series of blog posts for educators highlighting the resources available on History, Art & Archives of the U.S. House of Representatives. For lesson plans, fact sheets, glossaries, and other materials for the classroom, see the website's Education section.
As December draws to a close, there’s a tendency to review the efforts of the past year. In 2015, House History, Art & Archives added a slew of new information to the website, including pages on signers of the U.S. Constitution, histories of the House Office Buildings, trivia about addresses by Foreign Leaders, a documentary on the Voting Rights Act of 1965, and much more. On the blog, we introduced the new Photography blog entries, took you inside the Speaker’s Office, and traveled to Selma, Alabama. Here are just a few of our favorites from the past year.Breaking the Code: Duncan Lee, HUAC, and the Venona FilesHere’s the thing about being a spy: You can’t tell anybody. Especially if you’re a descendant of the Lee family of Virginia, educated at an elite prep school and university, a Rhodes Scholar, a lawyer at a prominent Manhattan law firm, and working in counterintelligence for the United States. Duncan Chaplin Lee was and did all of those things. He was a spy, and he got away with it.Read more.Plating PossumWhen a possum snuck into the Old House Office Building in 1946, it had little idea that it would end up as a Capitol dinner. The possum, or opossum, is a nocturnal marsupial, known for playing dead when faced with danger. Usually found in the woods of the southeastern and northwestern United States, possums have occasionally wandered into buildings in Washington, D.C. In March 1946, a particularly resourceful possum broke into the Old House Office Building (now known as the Cannon Building) and roamed the hallways for nearly a week while staffers hunted it down.Read more.The Unlucky SeventhIf you studied Latin in school you may recall the phrase, “Omne trium perfectum” (every set of three is complete). From history to pop culture, trios make for interesting stories. Ancient Rome had Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, and Mark Antony. The antebellum Senate boasted its Great Triumvirate—Webster, Calhoun, and Clay. The Bee Gees laid down the beat for 1970s disco goers. Harry Potter and his friends, Ron and Hermione, spellbound a later generation. The Illinois Seventh Congressional District of the 1840s spawned its own memorable political trio: John J. Hardin, Edward D. Baker, and Abraham Lincoln.Read more.Congressional Civil Rights Pilgrimage “Like Going to Normandy with Dwight Eisenhower”Rarely do we visit a historic site with someone who helped to make history there. But one weekend a year, more than 60 Members of Congress travel to Alabama with Selma veteran and Congressman John Lewis of Georgia. The Congressional Civil Rights Pilgrimage in 2015 commemorated the 50th anniversaries of the Selma-to-Montgomery marches which spurred passage of the landmark Voting Rights Act of 1965. The pilgrimage is an important congressional tradition and one the Office of the Historian chronicles through its civil rights oral history project.Read more.The Artist Formerly Known as FoxAt 10 different portrait unveilings on Capitol Hill, a man named Charles J. Fox was praised as the artist who captured the sitter’s likeness. Fox didn’t immediately fit the image of an artist in mid-century America—an unkempt genius in a beret and paint-splattered smock. Instead, he looked like a prosperous businessman with a well-tailored suit and receding hairline. Nor did he look like a sophisticated aesthete, although a promotional pamphlet described him as “the son of a well-known Austrian artist whose subjects were European royalty and continental society.” The only problem was that Charles J. Fox was not the true identity of the artist.Read more.The Saga of “Sausage” SawyerIn politics as in life, everyone discovers that they have to choose their battles, deciding when to fight and when to walk away. The lucky ones get to learn this lesson early and in private. Then there are others, like Ohio Representative William Sawyer. On Wednesday, March 4, 1846, the House of Representatives finished its daily business. At this point, an angry William Sawyer of Ohio rose and demanded recognition “to make an explanation personal to himself.” He brusquely sent to the House Clerk a recent copy of the New York Tribune which he declaimed had a “personally abusive” article and demanded that the article be read for the record.Read more.The Speaker Inquisition of 1856Shortly before seven o’clock in the evening, on Saturday, February 2, 1856, Nathaniel P. Banks of Massachusetts, strode to the well of the House, climbed the rostrum’s few steps to the Speaker’s chair, and sat down. He paused for a moment. With his thick dark hair swept to one side and a prominent mustache obscuring his upper lip, Banks then stood to address his colleagues, referencing “unusual difficulties.” What he unassumingly called “unusual difficulties” was, in fact, the fallout from the most chaotic period in House history.Read more.What’s in the Speaker’s Office?A space dedicated to receiving honored guests, a staging spot for invitees addressing joint meetings and a genteel setting for photo ops wasn’t part of the Speaker’s suite of offices until the mid-1930s, after the Longworth House Office Building opened. Increased space, more frequent visits by foreign dignitaries, and the demand for news photos spurred development of what is today known as the Speaker’s Ceremonial Office.Read more.Stay tuned in 2016 for the tale of one of the worst snowstorms to ever hit D.C., some Capitol Hill movie trivia, a look at the first female House photographer, and plenty more!Follow @USHouseHistory
If you studied Latin in school you may recall the phrase, “Omne trium perfectum” (every set of three is complete). From history to pop culture, trios make for interesting stories. Ancient Rome had Julius Caesar, Cleopatra, and Mark Antony. The antebellum Senate boasted its Great Triumvirate—Webster, Calhoun, and Clay. The Bee Gees laid down the beat for 1970s disco goers. Harry Potter and his friends, Ron and Hermione, spellbound a later generation.The Illinois Seventh Congressional District of the 1840s spawned its own memorable political trio: John J. Hardin, Edward D. Baker, and Abraham Lincoln.Illinois’ population had trebled in the 1830s, increasing its representation in Congress from three to seven seats after the 1840 Census. Reapportionment carved out the new Seventh District from 11 central-Illinois counties, taking in Springfield, the state capital. The Seventh was the only district in the Democrat-dominated state that tilted to the opposing Whig Party.For up-and-coming Whig politicians looking to make their mark and advance past the state legislature, the Seventh had a funneling effect: multiple aspirants scrambled for the one viable seat in Congress. In 1843, the competitors—Hardin, Baker, and Lincoln—shared similar traits. They were thirty-somethings, with legislative experience in Springfield, tireless campaigners, solid stump speakers, and rising stars in the party.When the Whig nominating convention gathered that spring in Pekin, Illinois, Hardin had the votes to win. But immediately after that count had been tallied, Lincoln—who had been pledged to back Baker—did something amazing for its guile and political prowess. He moved that the convention approve Baker as a suitable candidate in 1844, thus setting in place a system of rotation in office. Each would serve a single term and yield to the next in line. This was common in many states, but Lincoln’s ability to apply it in the new district was masterful.Hardin served in the 28th Congress (1843–1845) dutifully but with little fanfare, holding seats on the Military Affairs and the Post Office and Post Roads committees. From Hardin, however, we have one of the great descriptions of the House Chamber in that period. Of “all the places to speak or to try & do any business,” he wrote, “the Hall of the House is the worst I ever saw. I would prefer speaking in a pig pen with 500 hogs squealing . . . or talk to a mob when a fight is going on . . . no one but JQ Adams is even listened to by the House, unless there is a quarrel going on or the prospect of a row is brewing. Last week the scenes in the House would have disgraced the meanest western grocery. Bullying & Billingsgate are the only order of the day.”Baker distinguished himself in 1844 with flamboyant, soaring oratory that drew crowds. Among his more outlandish campaign props, writes Carl Sandburg, was a pet eagle trained to turn its head downward pensively and droop its shoulders when Baker referenced Democrats’ failures. When Baker shifted to discuss Whig principles, the raptor spread its wings wide and screeched. Baker, too, had a seat on the Military Affairs Committee and, it was perhaps no coincidence, that shortly after Congress declared war on Mexico in 1846, the martial spirit moved him to resign his seat and join the fight.Though Hardin toyed with the idea of running against Lincoln for the nomination in 1846, Lincoln outmaneuvered him by quietly rounding up support from local Whig leaders. Safely elected to the 30th Congress (1847–1849) by a wide margin, Lincoln held seats on the Post Office and Post Roads and the Expenditures in the Military Department committees. His term was more energetic—if tumultuous—than those of his predecessors. He introduced the “Spot Resolutions” questioning (like many other Whigs) President James K. Polk’s justifications for initiating the war with Mexico, promoted Zachary Taylor as his party’s successful presidential candidate, and authored a still-born proposal to end slavery in the District of Columbia.But the tragic career trajectories of this political trio also bear out that old superstition that bad luck often comes in threes.Shortly after the outbreak of the war with Mexico, Hardin raised and led a volunteer regiment of Illinoisans. At the Battle of Buena Vista in February 1847, a fatal bullet to the chest felled Colonel Hardin.Baker, who won re-election to the House from another Illinois district in 1848, followed his political aspirations westward to California and eventually Oregon. In the fall of 1860 he was appointed as a Republican to Oregon’s vacant U.S. Senate seat. On October 21, 1861, at the Civil War battle of Balls’ Bluff in Loudon County, Virginia, commanding a group of volunteers, Baker was shot and killed—the only sitting U.S. Senator to die in battle. His death stung Lincoln, a close friend who had named his second son for Baker.Lincoln, as we well know, fit this tragic pattern, too. In 1848, he had declined to seek re-nomination to a second term in the House and returned home to Springfield. Later, after two failed Senate bids, he was elected President in 1860 as the country plunged into a fratricidal war. His skill as a wartime President drew upon cajoling, compromise, and patient determination—traits which he also displayed during his House service. This week, 150 years ago, an assassin’s bullet cut his life short just days after Confederate forces surrendered at Appomattox, Virginia.All things being equal, some sets of three seem more complete—and consequential—than others.Sources: Michael Burlingame, Abraham Lincoln: A Life Vol. 1 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008): 213–308; David Herbert Donald, Lincoln (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1995): 111–141; Donald W. Riddle, Lincoln Runs for Congress (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1948) and Congressman Abraham Lincoln (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1957); Carl Sandburg, Abraham Lincoln, the Prairie Years and the War Years (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1966); Paul Findley, A. Lincoln: The Crucible of Congress (New York: Crown Publishers, 1979); Albert J. Beveridge, Abraham Lincoln, 1809–1858 (Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1928).Follow @USHouseHistory