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Global burden of gastric cancer: epidemiological trends, risk factors, screening and prevention | Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology

Gastric cancer remains a major cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The temporal trends for this malignancy, however, are dynamic, and reports from the past decade indicate important declines in some regions and demographic groups, as well as a few notable exceptions in which gastric cancer rates are either stable or increasing. Two main anatomical subtypes of gastric cancer exist, non-cardia and cardia, with different temporal trends and risk factors (such as obesity and reflux for cardia gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection for non-cardia gastric cancer). Shifts in the distribution of anatomical locations have been detected in several high-incidence regions. H. pylori is an important aetiological factor for gastric cancer; importantly, the anticipated long-term findings from studies examining the effect of H. pylori eradication on the risk of (re)developing gastric cancer have emerged in the past few years. In this Review, we highlight the latest trends in incidence and mortality using an evidence-based approach. We make the best possible inferences, including clinical and public health inference, on the basis of the quality of the evidence available, and highlight burning questions as well as gaps in knowledge and public health practice that need to be addressed to reduce gastric cancer burden worldwide. Globally, gastric cancer is a common and highly fatal cancer with two anatomical subtypes, non-cardia and cardia gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori causes almost 90% of distal gastric cancers worldwide. The authors of this Review summarize the current epidemiology of gastric cancer and the evidence and implications of primary and secondary prevention efforts.